About Building Automation Protocols

About Building Automation Protocols


Until recently, there was no standard industry network protocol for building automation, and users had to choose between many different systems from different manufacturers. Proprietary communications were a result of no off-the shelf communication solution. 

Today, we have reached a place where there are three major inter-operable standard network protocols to choose from BACnet, LonWorks and Modbus. Apart from these, there are other protocols such as DALI, KNX etc, which are specific for certain applications only. 


Building Automation Controls Network (BACnet):
BACnet is a network protocol specifically used for multiple devices to communicate across building automation systems by system users and building system manufacturers

Modbus is a network protocol best used for industrial automation systems specifically for connecting electronic equipment. Although Modbus is best for industrial applications, its simplicity allows it to be a useful tool for building automation as well.

LonWorks is a communication network protocol useful for building automation applications designed on a low bandwidth, for networking devices through power lines, fiber optics, and other media.

Comparison between different protocols




Developed By:


Modicon Inc.

Echelon Corporation/ Motorola


Communication across devices

Connection between devices

Networking devices through power lines, fiber optics, and other media


Industrial, Transportation, Energy Management, Building Automation, Regulatory and health and safety

HVAC, Lighting, Life Safety, Access Controls, transportation and maintenance

Home automation, industrial, transportation, and public utility control networks.


VAV Temperature controls

Tasks such as request temperature reading, send status alarm, or fan schedule

Security, lighting systems, HVAC, machine control, manufacturing, metering





Transmission Modes

Ethernet, IP, MS/TP


MS/TP, network, SNVT


ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 185 ;ISO-16484-5; ISO-16484-6

IEC 61158

ANSI/EIA 709.1; ISO/IEC 14908-1, 14908-2, 14908-3, 14908-4


High; No charge for usage or licensing fees

Low; No charge for usage or licensing fees

High (proprietary); Limited users (exclusive to actual members;  mostly manufacturers)

Network Interfaces

Existing LANs and LANs infrastructure

Traditional serial and Ethernet protocols

U10/U20 USB Network Interface; i.LON SmartServer; i.LON 600


  • Scalability between cost, performance and system size

  • Endorsement and adoption by nearly every major vendor in North America and many other countries

  • Robust internetworking including multiple LAN types and dial-up

  • Unrestricted growth and the ability to add new innovations and new features anytime

  • Easy connection to Modicon

  • Suitable for small/medium volumes of data (≤255 bytes)

  • Data transfer designed for industrial applications

  • Openly published and royalty-free

  • Easy to deploy and maintain

  • Moves raw bits or words without placing restrictions on vendors

  • Web based tool; saves time and cost

  • Numerous developers of Lonworks products in the market

  • Less Architecture at device level


  • Limited the number of field devices that can connect to a master station except Ethernet TCP/IP

  • MT/TP-Wire Length

  • Ethernet-Infrastructure


  • Limited the number of data types; Large binary objects are not supported.

  • No standard method for a node to find the description of a data object, i.e. finding a register value represents a temperature between 30 and 175.

  • No security against unauthorized commands or interception of data

  • Transmissions must be contiguous which limits the types of remote communications devices to those that can buffer data to avoid gaps in the transmission.

  • Great amount of configuration and programming required

  • Outdated

  • Controlled devices & variables are connected to a separate control device. (Not recommended due to network interruptions producing system failures)

  • Extensions are allowed only through the LonMark Consortium.

  • Hardware specific, and requires the Neuron chip for network movement of the protocol.

  • Close to “plug & play” ability, yet still far from achieving interconnectivity using Microsoft Windows.

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